Singularity. "Techno-futurists are sure a Singularity will soon deliver us from all material afflictions (or perhaps doom us to sudden extinction)" I'm sure you can find some techno-futureists that think that way, but there's a non-eternalist version of it too, which I'll try to present here. We have strong reasons to believe general AI and brain emulation are feasible technologies, and strong reasons to believe they will be achieved if our current civilization can avoid collapse for say, 1000 years. There are also weaker reasons to believe it could happen much faster. These techs do not offer to make us live forever, or perfect us, or change our basic condition of being resource-constrained physical creatures. But they do offer extraordinary possibilities and dangers which are unprecedented in the history of our species. Sudden extinction is possible. It's also possible we could continue to exist but under hellish or meaningless conditions. It's also possible that these techs could bring about a new regime of progress and glory for humanity, like industrial revolution but bigger. Modern civilization packed more progress in centuries than agricultural civs managed in millennia. A successor civilization of thinking computers could achieve more in decades than we have in centuries. How we handle this transition will probably determine the fate of our galaxy for millions of years. But exponential growth curves eventually flatten out. Meanings remain nebulous. Resources remain constrained. Life remains finite. There's nothing eternal at stake here. What's at stake is very big, but it's finite. The industrial revolution also offered us unimaginable riches and the potential for extinction. This is not fundamentally different, just bigger.